Endocannabinoids appear to reduce behavioural signs of anxiety, especially under stressful, aversive or otherwise challenging conditionsReference 167. Elevation of both 2-AG and anandamide signaling attenuates stress-induced anxiety, though apparently through different mechanismsReference 167Reference 1010. There is also increasing evidence pointing to a role for the ECS in facilitating the extinction of emotionally aversive memoriesReference 167Reference 1010. In humans, experimental studies employing pharmacological means of disrupting endocannabinoid signaling through the use of the CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist rimonabant suggest that impairments in endocannabinoid signaling result in increased sensitivity to the effects of stress including anxiety and anhedoniaReference 167Reference 1010.
A Cochrane Collaboration Review examining the efficacy and safety of cannabinoids in treating tics, premonitory urges, and obsessive compulsive symptoms in patients with TS concluded that there was insufficient evidence to support the use of cannabinoids in treating tics and obsessive CBD gummies for sale compulsive behaviour in persons suffering from TSReference 246. A patient survey distributed among 630 patients attending a movement disorders clinic reported that out of the 339 respondents, 25% had used cannabis with 31% reporting benefit in rest tremor, 45% in bradykinesia, and 14% in dyskinesiaReference 960. Results of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of 15 patients taking a single 0.03 mg/kg dose of nabilone and not taking any other anti-dystonia medication showed no significant reduction in dystoniaReference 253.
Results from a survey carried out among glaucoma patients at tertiary glaucoma clinics in Toronto and Montreal suggested that approximately 13% of these patients claimed they used complementary and alternative medicines to treat glaucoma, and from among these patients 2.3% reported using cannabis to treat their glaucomaReference 978. There is emerging evidence of a role for the ECS in the pathophysiology of spinocerebellar ataxiasReference 967Reference 968.
Both depression and PTSD have been associated with reduced levels of circulating endocannabinoidsReference 167Reference 1010. CB1 receptors are expressed on various peripheral tissues including the heart and vasculature, and CB receptor agonists and endocannabinoids decrease arterial blood pressure and cardiac contractility (reviewed inReference 1008).
In another study, the protein expression levels of the CB1 and CB2 receptors in these same areas of the cerebellum were also found to be significantly increased compared to controlsReference 967. These studies suggest an increase in the expression levels of a number of components of the ECS in cerebellar areas associated with hereditary autosomal dominant ataxias.